Reformulating the depression model of learned hopelessness for academic outcomes

Raymond Chung Park AU, David WATKINS, John HATTIE, Patricia ALEXANDE

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


This review explores developments in the construct of learned hopelessness, which originated in the clinical literature dealing with depression. In that context, the model developed by Abramson, Metalsky, and Alloy [Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372] has been particularly influential. The purpose of this review is to reformulate this model in the context of academic outcomes and to consider its relevance to learning and achievement. As a means of specifying the variables and paths in the reformulated model of academic learned hopeless, correlates from relevant motivational theories and research, including value-expectancy, self-efficacy, and learning strategies, will be considered. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-117
JournalEducational Research Review
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009


Au, R. C. P., Watkins, D., Hattie, J., & Alexander, P. (2009). Reformulating the depression model of learned hopelessness for academic outcomes. Educational Research Review, 4(2), 103-117. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2009.04.001


  • Learned hopelessness
  • Attributions
  • Motivation
  • Self-efficacy
  • Expectancy of success
  • Learning strategies
  • Academic achievement


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