This study examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of the competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring (Five Cs) model using the Positive Youth Development (PYD) survey’s short (34 items) and very short versions (17 items). We also tested its criterion-related validity with life satisfaction, flourishing, transcendence, perceived societal and school statuses, and COVID-19 anxiety. In the Philippines, 1,116 senior high school students completed this survey (age: M = 17.61 years; SD = 0.91). The results support the bi-factor model for both formats, which showed varying levels of measurement invariance across gender, SES, and school type. Controlling for the general PYD construct, character and caring (i.e., socio-emotional Cs) showed negative latent factor correlations with competence and confidence (i.e., efficacy-related Cs). Almost all PYD dimensions exhibited expected associations with the criterion-related measures. As the very short version showed low reliability for competence and character, our results support using the 34-item short scale to measure the general and individual dimensions of adolescent thriving. Copyright © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
|Journal||Applied Developmental Science|
|Early online date||May 2022|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - May 2022|