Previous studies have shown that ultraviolet (UV) A light and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) can synergistically enhance the formation of 8-hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in living cells. It has been postulated that the underlying mechanism is production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via photosensitization, but direct evidence supporting this hypothesis has been lacking. This study examined intracellular ROS production in living cells co-exposed to UV-A and BaP as well as the relationship between intracellular production of ROS and formation of 8-OHdG. KB cells were exposed to BaP for 24 h, followed by exposure to UV-A (365 nm) or UV-B (312 nm). The levels of intracellular ROS were directly measured by use of the fluorescent probe dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123) in flow cytometry. Levels of 8-OHdG were measured by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The results demonstrated that UV-B itself induced a much greater level of intracellular ROS than did UV-A alone under the same dose of energy (0.10 mW/cm2, 20 min). The presence of BaP (13.3 μM) substantially increased ROS production in UV-A-treated cells (2.9-fold), but only slightly enhanced ROS production in UV-B-treated cells (1.3-fold). These results show that BaP acts mainly as a photosensitizer of UV-A, but not UV-B. Furthermore, greater intracellular ROS production was proportional to both BaP concentration and UV-A dosage. There was a linear relationship between ROS production and 8-OHdG formation in cells co-exposed to BaP and UV-A. Results of this study suggest that UV-A and BaP act synergistically to enhance ROS production and formation of 8-OHdG, resulting in increased DNA damage. Copyright © 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
CitationZhang, X., Wu, R. S. S., Fu, W., Xu, L., & Lam, P. K. S. (2004). Production of reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine in KB cells co-exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and UV-A radiation. Chemosphere, 55(10), 1303-1308. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.12.004
- Oxidative stress
- Reactive oxygen species
- DNA integrity
- Ultraviolet A