Production and perception of the two dipping tones (Tone 2 and Tone 3) in Taiwan Mandarin

Janice FON, Wen-Yu CHIANG, Hin Tat CHEUNG

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12 Citations (Scopus)


This study examined the two most similar tones in Taiwan Mandarin - Tone 2 (T2) and Tone 3 (T3). Experiment I showed that both tones had dipping contours and occupied about the same mid-low pitch range. The only reliable difference lay in slope. T3 had consistently steeper slopes in both the falling and rising portions than those of T2. In Experiment II, a perception test of extracted portions from T2 and T3 showed that falling contours sounded more T3-Iike whereas rising contours more T2-like, regardless of which source tone an extraction was taken from. In Experiment III, a manipulation of slope and initial pitch showed that a falling slope with steepness between -.30 Hz/ms and -.40 Hz/ms and low initial pitch (190 Hz) fell in the optimal range for T3 but no such range was found for T2, although shallower slopes (-.20 Hz/ms and -.10 Hz/ms) and higher initial pitch (210 Hz) did elicit more T2 responses. Experiment IV, a speeded tonal recognition task, showed that as a result of different placements of critical information of the two tones, T3 was recognized faster than T2.

本研究目的在於檢視台灣地區國語中,兩個非常相似的語調―二聲與三聲。實驗一之結果顯示,此二語調皆呈現抑揚調之調型,並且佔有相似之中低音閾。二者唯一在統計上有效的差異為斜度。三聲無論是在抑或揚的部分,斜度皆比二聲為陡。實驗二中,由二聲與三聲取出部分調型,對於受試者進行聲調聽辨。結果發現,部分調型無論原本由何聲調中取出,抑調較符合聽者對於三聲的認知,而揚調則較符合聽者對於二聲的認知。實驗三中,我們將抑調予以調整,用以檢測斜度與初始音高對於聲調辨識的影響。結果顯示,當下降斜度在 -.30 赫茲/微秒與-.40 赫茲/微秒之間,且初始音高較低(190赫茲)時,頗能引發聽者三聲的反應。但聽者對二聲的認知卻極難在抑調中出現。不過,若抑調斜度較緩(-20 赫茲/微秒及-10 赫茲/微秒),且初始音高較高(210赫茲)時,聽者會有較多二聲之反應。實驗四為一快速聲調聽辨測試,結果顯示,由於二聲與三聲對於重要辨識資訊存放位置有異,三聲辨識速度較二聲為快。 Copyright © 2004 Journal of Chinese Linguistics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-281
JournalJournal of Chinese Linguistics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004


Fon, J., Chiang, W.-Y., & Cheung, H. (2004). Production and perception of the two dipping tones (Tone 2 and Tone 3) in Taiwan Mandarin. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 32(2), 249-281.


  • Tonal perception
  • Dipping tones
  • Rising tones
  • Tone2
  • Tone3
  • Mandarin tones
  • 聲調感知
  • 抑揚調
  • 揚調
  • 第二聲
  • 第三聲
  • 國語聲調
  • Alt. title: 台灣地區國語抑揚調 (二聲與三聲) 之發聲與聽辨


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