Perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), an aquatic pollutant of emerging concern, is found to disturb gut microbiota, retinoid metabolism and visual signaling in teleosts, while probiotic supplementation can shape gut microbial community to improve retinoid absorption. However, it remains unknown whether probiotic bacteria can modulate the toxicities of PFBS on retinoid metabolism and visual physiology. In the present study, adult zebrafish were exposed for 28 days to 0, 10 and 100 μg/L PFBS, with or without dietary administration of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Interaction between PFBS and probiotic was examined regarding retinoid dynamics (intestine, liver and eye) and visual stimuli transmission. PFBS single exposures remarkably inhibited the absorption of retinyl ester in female intestines, which were, however, restored by probiotic to normal status. Although coexposure scenarios markedly increased the hepatic storage of retinyl ester in females, mobilization of retinol was reduced in livers by single or combined exposures regardless of sex. In the eyes, transport and catalytic conversion of retinol to retinal and retinoic acid were interrupted by PFBS alone, which were efficiently antagonized by probiotic presumably through an indirect action. In response to the availability of retinal chromophore, transcriptions of opsins and arrestin genes were altered adaptively to control visual perception and termination. Neurotransmission across retina circuitry was changed accordingly, centering on epinephrine and norepinephrine. In summary, the present study found the efficient modulation of probiotic on retinoid metabolic disorders of PFBS pollution, which subsequently impacted visual signaling. A future work is warranted to provide mechanistic clues in retinoid interaction. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CitationHu, C., Tang, L., Liu, M., Lam, P. K. S., Lam, J. C. W., & Chen, L. (2020). Probiotic modulation of perfluorobutanesulfonate toxicity in zebrafish: Disturbances in retinoid metabolism and visual physiology. Chemosphere, 258. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127409
- Retinoid metabolism
- Visual physiology
- Antagonistic action