Private tutoring in Asia: Illuminating the shadow


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This chapter presents research on the theme of private supplementary tutoring in four regions of Asia. They converge in their concept of private tutoring as the practice of fee-paying tutoring in academic subjects provided outside standard school hours. This may take the form of instruction to individuals, small groups or large classes, both directly and through virtual classrooms. Scholars have used the metaphor of "shadow education" to depict how private tutoring mimics mainstream education systems. The chapter examines Bourdieusian social theory. It reviews private tuition as a social practice resulting from a triadic interaction among habitus, capital and field. The chapter illuminates the "shadows" in Asian education. Some governments turn a blind eye to this social practice, as it enables them to retain teachers in the profession at a lower cost. These irregularities, however, lead to other problems, such as corruption on the part of teachers and/or school leaders. Copyright © 2018 selection and editorial matter, Kerry J. Kennedy and John Chi-Kin Lee; individual chapters, the contributors.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRoutledge international handbook of schools and schooling in Asia
EditorsKerry J. KENNEDY, John Chi-Kin LEE
Place of PublicationNew York
ISBN (Electronic)9781315694382
ISBN (Print)9781138908499
Publication statusPublished - 2018


Manzon, M. (2018). Private tutoring in Asia: Illuminating the shadow. In K. J. Kennedy & J. C.-K. Lee (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of schools and schooling in Asia (pp. 319-322). New York: Routledge.


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