Primary school teachers' classroom-based e-assessment practices: Insights from the theory of planned behaviour

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Abstract

There is a global trend in the increased adoption of e-assessment in school classrooms to enhance learning. Teachers, as classroom-based assessment designers and implementers, play a vital role in such assessment change. However, little is known about school teachers' classroom-based e-assessment practices and the underlying reasons. To address this research gap, this study identified the factors influencing Hong Kong primary school teachers' e-assessment practices underpinned by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). A large-scale survey was issued to 878 teachers via Qualtrics. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis shows that primary school teachers' intentions of using e-assessment and perceived behavioural control of it were the two strongest factors predicting their e-assessment practices in a general way. Specifically, teachers' intentions outweighed perceived behavioural control in determining their use of alternative e-assessment tasks and e-feedback, but this reversed for e-tests/exercises. The impact of perceived behavioural control was consistent across the three types of e-assessment practices. Furthermore, teachers' attitudes significantly influenced their intentions to use alternative e-assessment tasks, while subject norms primarily predicted their intentions to use e-feedback. The findings have implications for primary schools to take countermeasures to facilitate the successful implementation of e-assessment at the classroom level.Practitioner notesWhat is already known about this topic E-assessment has the potential to influence learning. E-assessment has often been used in a controlled environment with a relatively small sample size. The past 3 years have seen a surge in discussions and research around using e-assessment in classroom settings, mostly in higher education. What this paper adds Primary school teachers used more e-tests or exercises than alternative e-assessment tasks and e-feedback in their daily teaching. Teachers' intentions outweighed perceived behavioural control in determining their use of alternative e-assessment tasks and e-feedback, but this reversed for e-tests/exercises. Teachers' attitudes significantly influenced their intentions to use alternative e-assessment tasks, while subject norms primarily predicted their intentions to use e-feedback. Implications for practice and/or policy Teachers' intentions of using alternative e-assessment and e-feedback should be increased to enhance their usage in the classroom. Teachers' e-assessment literacy should be developed to enable them to integrate e-assessment into their daily instruction. Copyright © 2024 The Authors.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Educational Technology
Early online dateMay 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - May 2024

Citation

Zhan, Y., Sun, D., Kong, H. M., & Zeng, Y. (2024). Primary school teachers' classroom-based e-assessment practices: Insights from the theory of planned behaviour. British Journal of Educational Technology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.13478

Keywords

  • Alternative e-assessment tasks
  • E-feedback
  • E-tests/exercises
  • Primary school teachers
  • Theory of planned behaviour