Presenting a 4-item spiritual well-being index (4-ISWBI)

John FISHER, Tze Kin David NG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Spiritual well-being is perceived to be reflected in the quality of relationships that people have in four areas, namely with God, others, nature, and self. Many spiritual well-being questionnaires exist, but not many provide an adequate assessment of these four relationships. As part of a survey of parental perceptions of holistic early childhood education in kindergartens in Hong Kong, 1383 parents and 165 teachers, from 22 kindergartens, completed a written survey questionnaire which helped to investigate the potential for a single question with four parts to provide a valid and reliable measure for spiritual well-being. Face, content, and construct validity were confirmed, together with Cronbach’s alpha providing a test for reliability. Similarity of findings from regression analysis of items in the 4-ISWBI with domains of spiritual well-being in the 20-item SHALOM, as well as partial discrimination by gender, reinforce the validity of the 4-ISWBI as a sound indicator of spiritual well-being and its four domains. In brief, the 4-Item Spiritual Well-Being Index (4-ISWBI) promises to be a handy instrument to aid researchers looking for a convenient, concise, coherent indicator, but not an exhaustive measure, of spiritual well-being. Copyright © 2017 by the authors.
Original languageEnglish
Article number179
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2017


Fisher, J., & Ng, D. (2017). Presenting a 4-item spiritual well-being index (4-ISWBI). Religions, 8(9). Retrieved from


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