Predictors of systemic embolism in patients with mitral stenosis: A prospective study

Cheng-Wen CHIANG, Sing Kai LO, Yu-Shien KO, Nye-Jan CHENG, Pyng Jing LIN, Chau-Hsiung CHANG

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Abstract

Background: Most studies of the predictors of systemic embolism in patients with mitral stenosis have been retrospective.
Objective: To prospectively study factors associated with systemic embolism in mitral stenosis.
Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: University-affiliated medical institution with 3000 beds.
Patients: 534 consecutive patients with a mitral valve area of 2.0 cm2 or less; 132 patients were in sinus rhythm, and 402 were in atrial fibrillation. Measurements: Nine clinical and 10 echocardiographic variables were assessed for prediction of systemic embolism over a mean (±SD) follow-up of 36.9 ± 22.5 months. Diagnosis of systemic embolism was based on symptoms and signs (sudden onset of peripheral arterial ischemic or neurologic manifestations without prodromes) and on findings on computed tomography, angiography, and surgery.
Results: For patients in sinus rhythm, age (relative risk [RR], 1.12 [95% CI, 1.04 to 1.21]), the presence of a left atrial thrombus (RR, 37.1 [CI, 2.82 to 487.8]), mitral valve area (RR, 16.9 [CI, 1.53 to 187.0]), and the presence of significant aortic regurgitation (RR, 22.4 [CI, 2.72 to 184.8]) were positively associated with embolism. For patients in atrial fibrillation, previous embolism (RR, 3.11 [CI, 1.66 to 5.85]) was positively associated with embolism; percutaneous balloon mitral commissurotomy (RR, 0.37 [CI, 0.18 to 0.79]) was a negative predictor.
Conclusions: It may be prudent to give anticoagulants not only to patients in atrial fibrillation and patients with previous systemic embolism but also to those showing a left atrial thrombus or significant aortic regurgitation on echocardiography. Early percutaneous balloon mitral commissurotomy may also help prevent systemic embolism in patients with mitral stenosis. Copyright © 1998 American College of Physicians.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)885-889
JournalAnnals of Internal Medicine
Volume128
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1998

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Mitral Valve Stenosis
Embolism
Prospective Studies
Atrial Fibrillation
Aortic Valve Insufficiency
Mitral Valve
Thrombosis
Neurologic Manifestations
Anticoagulants
Signs and Symptoms
Echocardiography
Cohort Studies

Citation

Chiang, C.-W., Lo, S.-K., Ko, Y.-S., Cheng, N.-J., Lin, P. J., & Chang, C.-H. (1998). Predictors of systemic embolism in patients with mitral stenosis: A prospective study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 128(11), 885-889. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-128-11-199806010-00001