Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and halogenated-PAHs in Shanxi, China

Zhiping LI, Qianlong HAO, Jianwei YUE, Jie QIN, Chuan DONG, Yong LI, Kin Lam Ken YUNG, Ruijin LI

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

Abstract

Emerging pollutants, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), and halogenated PAHs (HPAHs), in atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in four cities (Taiyuan, Yangquan, Changzhi, and Jincheng) during the non-heating and heating periods of Shanxi province, China, in 2020, were monitored to investigate their pollution characteristics and potential health risk. The exposure levels of PM2.5-bound ∑16PAHs, ∑13NPAHs, ∑6ClPAHs, and ∑7BrPAHs during the heating period ascended compared to the non-heating period. 2N-Nap, 1N-Nap, 2N-Fle, and 9N-Phe were primary monomers in NPAHs with higher concentrations, while higher levels of 2Br-Fle, 2Cl-Ant, and 9Cl-Phe were in HPAHs. Toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), and loss of life expectancy (LLE) results suggested that PM2.5-bound PAHs during the heating periods posed a potential carcinogenic risk. The ILCR and loss of life expectancy (LLE) values of PM2.5-bound PAHs showed a similar decreasing trend with an order: adults (age 30–70) > toddler >adults (age 18–30) > teenagers > children >baby. The TEQ and ILCR values of ∑13NPAHs and ∑13HPAHs in PM2.5 were far below the safety threshold, indicating no obvious cancer risks. The pollution of PM2.5-bound PAHs, NPAHs, and HPAHs and potential health risks in Yangquan and Changzhi was more serious compared to Taiyuan and Jincheng. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAir Quality, Atmosphere and Health
Early online dateNov 2023
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Nov 2023

Citation

Li, Z., Hao, Q., Yue, J., Qin, J., Dong, C., Li, Y., Yung, K. K. L., & Li, R. (2023). Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of PM₂.₅-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and halogenated-PAHs in Shanxi, China. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-023-01475-1

Keywords

  • Fine particulate matter
  • Particulate-bound PAHs
  • Nitro-PAHs
  • Halogenated-PAHs
  • Health risks
  • Shanxi

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