Traditional hope theory is dominated by an individualistic assumption wherein the self is considered as the focal agent of goal attainment. However, in collectivist cultures more relational dimensions of hope also need to be considered. The locus of hope dimension (internal vs. external locus) was added to the traditional hope theory in order to capture both individualistic and collectivist types of hope. Hope could either be anchored on oneself (internal locus) or on signiﬁcant others (external locus). External locus could further be divided into family, friends, and spiritual hope. There is still a dearth of research on the external locus of hope, with most of the previous studies focusing on the internal locus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine how internal and external loci of hope could predict various indices of psychological adjustment. We also examined how individual differences in self-construals would predict locus of hope. Results among the Chinese university students indicated that independent selfconstrual was positively associated with the internal locus of hope, while interdependent self-construal was positively associated with the external locus of hope. Internal locus and external locus of hope related to family and friends were positively associated with adjustment, but spiritual hope was not. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
CitationDu, H., & King, R. B. (2013). Placing hope in self and others: Exploring the relationships among self-construals, locus of hope, and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(3), 332–337.
- Locus of hope
- Models of agency