The techniques for the production of the environment have received attention because of the increasing air pollution, which results in a negative impact on the living environment of mankind. Over the decades, burgeoning interest in polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) based photocatalysts for heterogeneous catalysis of air pollutants has been witnessed, which is improved by harvesting visible light, layered/defective structures, functional groups, suitable/adjustable band positions, and existing Lewis basic sites. PCN-based photocatalytic air purification can reduce the negative impacts of the emission of air pollutants and convert the undesirable and harmful materials into value-added or nontoxic, or low-toxic chemicals. However, based on previous reports, the systematic summary and analysis of PCN-based photocatalysts in the catalytic elimination of air pollutants have not been reported. The research progress of functional PCN-based composite materials as photocatalysts for the removal of air pollutants is reviewed here. The working mechanisms of each enhancement modification are elucidated and discussed on structures (nanostructure, molecular structue, and composite) regarding their effects on light-absorption/utilization, reactant adsorption, intermediate/product desorption, charge kinetics, and reactive oxygen species production. Perspectives related to further challenges and directions as well as design strategies of PCN-based photocatalysts in the heterogeneous catalysis of air pollutants are also provided. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.