Perceptual change in pupils' sense of belonging: Effect of mode of primary schooling in Hong Kong

Ching David KWOK, Man Tak LEUNG

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Pupils’ sense of belonging is a much talked about topic in the school community in Hong Kong but there is a paucity of research because of the lack of properly validated instrument. Goodenow (1993) has developed a scale (Psychological Sense of School Membership—PSSM Scale) to measure pupils’ sense of belonging which may be applicable for cross-cultural research. In the recent months, the Hong Kong Government has initiated a large-scale investigation on possible benefits of whole-day primary schooling and whether pupils’ sense of belonging will be enhanced is one of the main concerns. (Note : At present, more than two-third of the primary schools adopt the mode of half-day schooling). In this study, 31 primary schools which are in the process of transition from the mode of half-day to whole-day schooling will be investigated. A sample of 60 pupils ranging from P.1 to P.6 will be randomly selected from each school. They will be administered the PSSM Scale and a locally developed questionnaire before the summer break and be revisited before the end of the year. Through repeated measures and factor analytic techniques, the results will help throw light upon the applicability of the PSSM Scale and whether there are changes in pupils’ perception concerning their sense of belonging will be highlighted.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1999


Hong Kong
primary school


Kwok, C. D., & Leung, M. T. (1999, December). Perceptual change in pupils' sense of belonging: Effect of mode of primary schooling in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the MERA-ERA Joint Conference 1999: Educational Challenge in the New Millennium, Malaysia.