Perception of teachers towards inclusive education (PTIE): An investigation on scale construct and item calibration

Ka Lam Sam SAM, Fuk Chuen HO, Sze Ching Cici LAM

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Perception of teacher has been supported by recent research which influences their behavior towards acceptance of students with special learning needs. This study examines the psychometric properties of a newly constructed measure on teacher perception towards inclusive education. The study comprised 355 teachers (mostly females; majority age group: 26 to 45) from three progressive teacher training courses (basic, advanced, and thematic), which cater to different educational needs. The participants were required to complete the questionnaire on their perception towards educational inclusion. Data were analyzed using both classic test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). Three domains (attitude, concern, and commitment) of perception were identified and tested in the context of Hong Kong. The analysis showed these domains had strong construct validity (GFI=.986; CFI=.941; RMSEA=.0578), internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=.529–.761), and good fit to the Rasch model among items (Infit/outfit=.80–1.27). The current findings support the view that administration of the recent scale provided better understanding of teachers’ perception on inclusive setting, and improved guidance for better program development on teacher training. Copyright © 2015 International Journal of Culture and History.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-62
JournalInternational Journal of Culture and History
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2015



Sam, K.-L., Ho, F.-C., & Lam, S.-C. (2015). Perception of teachers towards inclusive education (PTIE): an investigation on scale construct and item calibration. International Journal of Culture and History, 1(1), 54-62.


  • Teacher perception
  • Inclusive education
  • PTIE
  • Item calibration
  • Scale validation