Four studies (N = 1,151) examined whether people with lower subjective social classes would be more likely to apply higher moral standards to others than to themselves. With participants from mainland China, Hong Kong, and the United States, we found that people of lower measured or manipulated subjective social classes accepted others' hypothetical transgressions less than their own transgressions (Studies 1 and 4), and they claimed others should allocate more money to their partners in a dictator game than they themselves did (Studies 2 and 3). This effect was mediated by perceived injustice (Study 3) and eliminated when the perceived social justice was boosted (Study 4). Higher class individuals did not show such discrepant self–other moral standards. A mini meta-analysis validates the reliability of the findings that only lower class individuals demonstrate double moral standards. Therefore, lower class individuals may increase moral requirements on others as a reaction to their perceived unjust disadvantages. Copyright © 2020 The Author(s).
CitationWang, X., Chen, Z., Poon, K.-T., & Jiang, T. (2021). Perceiving a lack of social justice: Lower class individuals apply higher moral standards to others. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 12(2), 186-193. doi: 10.1177/1948550619898558
- Social class
- Double moral standards
- Moral judgment
- Social justice