The use of English as the language of international communication has increased dramatically and this has been accompanied by a growing trend for the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL) to young learners all over the world. However, young EFL learners are doubly disadvantaged because of their relatively limited exposure to English as well as their cognitive immaturity. Given that there is a dearth of research-based evidence documenting the teaching and learning of a foreign language by young learners in Asian contexts, this paper draws upon a multiple case study of three Hong Kong kindergarten teachers and examines the pedagogic conditions within which the teaching of English took place. Data were collected through teacher interviews and classroom observations. Constraints and limitations in pedagogical conditions were identified and these were felt to contribute to both a product-oriented pedagogy and relatively low levels of children's engagement in learning English. The product-oriented pedagogy was also recognized for having digressed from the rhetoric of the curriculum guidelines. Challenges facing Hong Kong and its Asian counterparts in teaching English in an EFL setting are highlighted for further research and discussion. Copyright © 2013 臺灣師範大學英語文教學中心 & Airiti Press Inc.
CitationNg, M. L. (2013). Pedagogical conditions for the teaching and learning of English as a foreign language in Hong Kong kindergartens. English Teaching & Learning, 37(3), 1-35.
- Pedagogical conditions
- English as a foreign language
- Early English learning kindergarteners
- Alt. title: 香港幼稚園英語學與教的教學條件