Pattern and divergence of tree communities in Taipei's main urban green spaces

Chi Yung JIM, Wendy Y. CHEN

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56 Citations (Scopus)


Urban vegetation increasingly contributes to nature conservation and ecosystem services, but lacking understanding of site variations has restricted such uses. This study analyzed the spatial pattern and differentiation of tree communities in three major green landscape types (urban parks, riverside parks and street verges) in Taipei city. In each landscape type, 10 representative tree communities were studied. Statistical tests for ecological communities were employed: Jaccard and Q species similarity indices, two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN), and new species fidelity, landscape fidelity and composite Q indices. Significant recent increase in Taipei's green spaces was traced. The study area contained 164 tree species, but few were shared by the three landscape types and none by 30 communities. Native evergreen broadleaf species with large final dimensions were dominant. Urban parks registered the highest species richness, landscape fidelity, rare species and urban endemics. Such exclusive species constitution deviated notably from riverside parks and street verges, with relatively simple and converging intra-site species ingredients. Pronounced species differentiation between urban parks reflected diversified site topography, natural woodland inheritance, woodland creation, and past landscape fashion. TWINSPAN classified the communities into nine groups each with signature characteristics. Inherent site variations offered main determinants of tree heterogeneity, superimposed by human modification to satisfy pre-determined site functions. A hybrid urban park with high species diversity and nature contents is advocated by amalgamating conventional but polarized designs of country and urban parks. The findings could inform management of urban forest, urban nature conservation, and ecological services of urban green spaces. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)312-323
JournalLandscape and Urban Planning
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 03 Mar 2008


Jim, C. Y., & Chen, W. Y. (2008). Pattern and divergence of tree communities in Taipei's main urban green spaces. Landscape and Urban Planning, 84(3-4), 312-323. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.09.001


  • Hybrid park
  • Precision urban forestry
  • Urban ecology
  • Urban flora
  • Urban green space
  • Urban nature conservation


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