Paternal smoking and maternal protective behaviors at home on infant's saliva cotinine levels

Man-ping WANG, Yi-nam SUEN, Yee Man Bonny WONG, William Ho-cheung LI, David Soo-quee KOH, Tai-hing LAM, Sophia Siu-chee CHAN

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Abstract

Background: We investigated the association between paternal smoking, avoidance behaviors and maternal protective actions and smoke-free home rules with infant's saliva cotinine in Hong Kong.
Methods: Six hundred and seventy-five non-smoking mothers (mean age 32.6 years) who attended the maternal–child health clinics with their newborns aged ≤18 months completed a questionnaire about paternal smoking and avoidance behaviors, maternal protective actions, smoke-free rules at home, and infant's second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Three hundred and eighty-nine infants provided saliva sample and its cotinine was tested.
Results: The geometric mean of infant's saliva cotinine was 1.07 ng/ml (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.16). Infants living in smoking families with SHS exposure had significantly higher cotinine level than in non-smoking families (adjusted β=0.25, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.33). Paternal smoking near infants (within 1.5 m) was associated with higher cotinine level (adjusted β=0.60, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.98), which was not reduced by avoidance behaviors (e.g., smoking in kitchen or balcony). Even fathers smoking ≥3 m away from infants was associated with higher cotinine level than non-smoking families (adjusted β=0. 09, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.16). Maternal protective actions and smoke-free home rules were not significantly associated with reduced cotinine level.
Conclusion: Paternal smoking avoidance, maternal protective actions, and smoke-free policy at home did not reduce infant's saliva cotinine. Copyright © 2018 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)936-942
JournalPediatric Research
Volume83
Issue number5
Early online dateDec 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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Maternal Behavior
Cotinine
Saliva
Smoking
Avoidance Learning
Mothers
Smoke
Confidence Intervals
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Paternal Behavior
Smoke-Free Policy
Hong Kong
Fathers
Newborn Infant
Pediatrics
Health

Citation

Wang, M.-P., Suen, Y.-N., Wong, B. Y.-M., Li, W. H.-C., Koh, D. S.-Q., Lam, T.-H., & Chan, S. S.-C. (2018). Paternal smoking and maternal protective behaviors at home on infant's saliva cotinine levels. Pediatric Research, 83(5), 936-942. doi: 10.1038/pr.2017.279