This longitudinal study examined the associations between child negative affect, parental self-efficacy (PSE), and parents’ approaches to the provision of supportive socialization. It also investigated the bidirectionality between PSE, problem-focus socialization, and emotion-focus socialization across two time points separated by one year. Participants were 757 Hong Kong Chinese parents (47.4% fathers) of kindergarten children. At both time 1 and time 2, parents reported their PSE, problem-focus socialization, and emotion-focus socialization. Additionally, parents rated their child's negative affect at time 1. Results from the cross-lagged panel model revealed that, controlling for the effects of school's socioeconomic strata, child gender, parental age, and educational level, PSE at time 1 mediated the indirect links of child negative affect at time 1 with problem-focus (indirect effect: β = −.02, SE = .02, p < .05) and emotion-focus (indirect effect: β = −.02, SE = .01, p < .05) socialization at time 2 and that PSE (β = .10, SE = .06, p < .01) and problem-focus socialization (β = .15, SE = .03, p < .05) were reciprocally associated with each other. Findings underscored the role of PSE in understanding parental provision of supportive socialization and the co-development of belief about parenting and parenting behaviors. Copyright © 2021 Family Process Institute.
CitationFung, W. K., Chung, K. K. H., & Lam, C. B. (2021). Parental self-efficacy: Examining its mediating and reciprocally predictive roles in supportive emotion socialization. Family Process. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/famp.12688
- Emotion-focus socialization
- Negative affect
- Parental self-efficacy
- Problem-focus socialization