Paradigm shift in higher education: Globalization, localization, and individualization

Research output: Contribution to conferencePapers


To meet the challenges of the new century, this presentation aims to explain why and how higher education should be shifted from a traditional site-bounded paradigm towards a new triplization paradigm. The new paradigm urges to develop the contextualized multiple intelligences (CMI) of tertiary students including technological intelligence, economic intelligence, social intelligence, political intelligence, cultural intelligence, and learning intelligence such that they can become CMI leaders and contribute to build up a CMI society and a CMI global village. Also, the presentation explains why triplization including globalization, localization, and individualization as a whole in education is necessary to reform higher learning and teaching; and describes how they can create unlimited opportunities and pool up world class intellectual assets and resources for life-long learning, development, and research of both students and professors, with the help of information technology and boundless multiple global and local networking. Examples of ongoing innovations and implications will be drawn to illustrate the international trends of higher education reform towards triplization and contextualized multiple intelligences.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2001


Cheng, Y. C. (2001, October). Paradigm shift in higher education: Globalization, localization, and individualization. Paper presented at the Ford Foundation Conference on “Innovations in African Higher Education”, Windsor Golf and Country Club, Nairobi, Kenya.


  • Theory and Practice of Teaching and Learning


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