Context: Pain beliefs as indexed by the Survey of Pain Attitudes (SOPA) have been consistently shown to predict pain adjustment outcomes in Western populations. However, its utility in non-Western populations is unclear. Objectives: We evaluated the construct and predictive validity of the Chinese version of the 14-item SOPA (ChSOPA-14) in a sample of Chinese patients with chronic pain. Methods: A total of 208 Chinese patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed the ChSOPA-14, the Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and measures of sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Except Medical Cure, all ChSOPA-14 scales were significantly correlated with validity criterion measures (all P < 0.05) in expected directions. The present Chinese sample scored the highest on the Medical Cure scale (mean = 2.98, standard deviation [SD] = 1.05) but the lowest on the Disability scale (mean = 1.75, SD = 1.67). Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the ChSOPA-14 scales predicted concurrent depression (F(7,177) = 14.51, P < 0.001) and pain disability (F(7,180) = 8.77, P < 0.001). Pain Control (stdβ [standardized beta coefficient] = -0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.41, -0.13; P < 0.05) and Emotion (stdβ = 29; 95% CI: 1.76, 5.02; P < 0.001) emerged as significant independent predictors of concurrent depression whereas Disability (stdβ = 0.19; 95% CI: 1.33, 7.88; P < 0.01), Emotion (stdβ = 16; 95% CI: 0.08, 7.59; P < 0.05), and Solicitude (stdβ = -0.14; 95% CI: -7.05, -0.04; P < 0.05) significantly associated with concurrent disability. Conclusion: The findings offer preliminary evidence for the construct and concurrent predictive validity of the ChSOPA-14. This makes available a suitable instrument for chronic pain in the Chinese population and will facilitate future cross-cultural research on pain beliefs. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
CitationWong, W. S., Jensen, M. P., Mak, K. H., & Fielding, R. (2011). Pain-related beliefs among Chinese patients with chronic pain: The construct and concurrent predictive validity of the Chinese version of the survey of pain attitudes-14 (ChSOPA-14). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 42(3), 470-478. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.12.009
- Chronic pain
- Pain belief
- Alt. title: Pain-related beliefs among Chinese patients with chronic pain: The construct and concurrent predictive validity of the Chinese version of the 14-item version of survey of pain attitudes (ChSOPA-14)
- Alt. title: Pain beliefs among Chinese chronic pain patients