Flame retardants are found in many common products both for domestic use and for export. As coastal areas are generally characterized by high population density and intense socioeconomic activities, it is not surprising that huge amounts of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are found in these regions. A well-known example of an HFR is polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) of which penta- and octa-BDE have been added to the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) list of the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, toxicity, bioaccumulation, and long-range transport potential. Since the worldwide restriction on the production and use of PBDEs, the market demand for these compounds is expected to decline, whereas that for its alternatives is projected to increase. Recently, the occurrence of these emerging contaminants in the environment has attracted great attention. This chapter, therefore, discusses the current knowledge on the coastal contamination by the halogenated PBDE alternatives in sediment and in marine mammals and describes a preliminary ecological risk assessment due to these chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Title of host publication||Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Analytical techniques, environmental fate and biological effects|
|Editors||Eddy Y. ZENG|
|Place of Publication||Amsterdam|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|
CitationLam, J. C. W., & Lam, P. K. S. (2015). Occurrence and ecological risk of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in coastal zones. In E. Y. Zeng (Ed.), Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Analytical techniques, environmental fate and biological effects (pp. 389-409). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
- Contaminants of emerging concern
- Halogenated flame retardants
- Marine mammals
- Risk assessment