This paper reports on the feasibility of using sub-surface horizontal flow constructed wetlands to treat municipal wastewater in Hong Kong. Two different hydraulic retention times (10-day and 5-day) and different types of treatments (with and without vegetation) were investigated. Better performance in the planted treatments was obtained in both hydraulic retention time treatments. Nutrients were better removed in treatments with plants (DOC 68% and 72%; NH4-N 92% and 95%; TKN 65% and 62%; PO4-P 79% and 72%; TP 67% and 52% for 10-day HRT; 5-day HRT treatments). In the unplanted treatments, negative values were achieved in the removal of phosphate in wastewater and the presence of plants could further polish the wastewater so phosphate concentrations decreased in the planted treatments. The effluent concentrations in the planted treatments meet the Inland Water A effluent standard, and they can be used in recreation park in Hong Kong (1 mg L-1 of NOx; 15 mg L-1 of NH3; 1 mg L-1 of TP). Copyright © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Publication status||Published - 03 Jan 2008|
CitationChung, A. K. C., Wu, Y., Tam, N. F. Y., & Wong, M. H. (2008). Nitrogen and phosphate mass balance in a sub-surface flow constructed wetland for treating municipal wastewater. Ecological Engineering, 32(1), 81-89. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.09.007
- Constructed wetland
- Hydraulic retention time
- Municipal wastewater
- Removal efficiency
- Typha latifolia