Natural history of infants with vitamin D deficiency in Hong Kong

Joanna Yuet-Ling TUNG, Hung-Kwan SO, Keith Tsz-Suen TUNG, Rosa Sze Man WONG, Hing-Wai TSANG, Bianca CHAN, Winnie Wan-Yee TSO, Ian Chi-Kei WONG, Jason C. S. YAM, Samantha Lai-Ka LEE, Gloria PANG, Wilfred Hing-Sang WONG, Ka-Wang CHEUNG, Wing-Cheong LEUNG, Patrick IP

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review


Background and Objectives: The usual recommended intake of vitamin D for healthy infants is 400 international unit (IU) daily. However, a high dose of vitamin D at 2000-3000 IU daily is needed for those with vitamin D deficiency (VDD). This study aimed to assess the natural history of a group of healthy infants with VDD and the associated factors for persistent VDD. Methods and Study Design: Healthy infants detected to have VDD (25OHD <25 nmol/L) in a population study were followed, and their demographics and clinical data were collected. Results: One hundred and thirty-one subjects (boys = 66%) were included. Their first serum 25OHD was taken at a median age of 87.5 days. None were treated with high-dose vitamin D supplements, but some have been given vitamin D at 400 IU daily. They were assessed again at the median age of 252.5 days when 15 remained to have VDD and 26 were in the insufficient range (25 - 49.9nmol/L). All persistent VDD children were on exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding and no vitamin D supplementation were significant risk factors for persistent vitamin D insufficiency (<50nmol/L). Conclusions: Persistent VDD is common among infants exclusively breastfeeding and those who did not receive vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2023 HEC Press.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-407
JournalAsia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


Tung, J. Y.-L., So, H.-K., Tung, K. T.-S., Wong, R. S.-M., Tsang, H.-W., Chan, B., Tso, W. W.-Y., Wong, I. C.-K., Yam, J. C.-S., Lee, S. L.-K., Pang, G., Wong, W. H.-S., Cheung, K.-W., Leung, W.-C., & Ip, P. (2023). Natural history of infants with vitamin D deficiency in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 32(4), 401-407.


  • Vitamin D
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Infants
  • Rickets


Dive into the research topics of 'Natural history of infants with vitamin D deficiency in Hong Kong'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.