Multi-level self management in school: Further development of school-based management in Hong Kong

Wing Ming Francis CHEUNG, Yin Cheong CHENG

Research output: Contribution to conferencePapers


Contemporary practice of school-based management world-wide aims at providing schools with increased autonomy so that they may acquire the necessary flexibility, responsiveness and proactiveness to meet the challenges ahead in the changing external and internal school environment. Theoretically, schools practicing school-based management may therefore be more effective. However, researchers do not have convergent views regarding the effect of school-based management. Some noted very encouraging and positive effects. On the other hand, some observed fairly negative results with the absence of empirical evidence that school-based management is related to students’ educational outcomes. Responding to these observations, Cheung & Cheng (1996a) asserted that the effectiveness of school-based management depends largely on the self management behavior of teachers working in groups and individually. In order to maximize the benefit of school-based management, key actors should practice self management cycles at the school, group and teacher levels. This paper discusses how the practice of this self management framework could facilitate the school, groups and individual teachers in continuous self learning and development, and in turn enhance multi-level performance in school. Taking the practice of School Management Initiative (SMI – as one type of school-based management) in Hong Kong schools as an example, the paper first analyses the recommendations set out in the SMI policy document. Then the authors examine the degree to which these recommendations could facilitate multi-level self management of the key actors in school. Based on the result of the analysis and the conception of Cheung & Cheng (1996a), the paper proposes directions for further development of school-based management in Hong Kong. It is hoped that the recommended directions may provide insights for both the policy makers and school practitioners to further develop the practice of school-based management specifically in Hong Kong, and generally in the international context.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1997


Cheung, W. M., & Cheng, Y. C. (1997, August). Multi-level self management in school: Further development of school-based management in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Chinese Education towards the 21st century, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China.


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