Movement pattern components and mastery of an object control skill with error-reduced learning

Catherine Mamaid CAPIO, Jamie M. POOLTON, Kathlynne F. EGUIA, Cynthia S. Y. CHOI, Rich S. W. MASTERS

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: This paper reports the effects of error-reduced learning on movement components and mastery of overhand throwing in children with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Secondary data analysis was performed on two samples of children (typically developing, TD; intellectual disability, ID) who practiced overhand throwing in either an error-reduced (ER) or error-strewn (ES) condition. Movement pattern components were assessed using a sub-skill of Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Results: In TD participants, ER learners displayed improved follow-through while ES learners did not. Among children with ID, ER learners displayed greater improvements of hip/shoulder rotation and follow-through, than ES learners. Discriminant function analysis confirmed that changes in these components differentiated learning groups. Greater percentage of ER, compared to ES, participants progressed to mastery. Conclusions: With suppressed errors, the follow-through component of overhand throwing is likely to emerge, particularly in children with inferior abilities, and cognitive limitations. Error-reduced learning facilitates mastery. Copyright © 2016 Taylor & Francis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-183
JournalDevelopmental Neurorehabilitation
Issue number3
Early online date22 Mar 2016
Publication statusPublished - 2017


Intellectual Disability
Discriminant Analysis


Capio, C. M., Poolton, J. M., Eguia, K. F., Choi, C. S. Y., & Masters, R. S. W. (2017). Movement pattern components and mastery of an object control skill with error-reduced learning. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 20(3), 179-183. doi: 10.3109/17518423.2016.1140844


  • Error-reduced learning
  • Object control
  • Overhand throwing
  • Intellectual disability