Motivational pattern of pre-service P. E. teachers in sport participation

Cheuk Kuen Eric TSANG, C. M. R. CHAN

Research output: Contribution to conferencePapers


The value and attitude of teachers can have profound influence on shaping the character of their students. In sport, participation and discontinuation are the two most controversial topics being discussed. This study examines the motivational patterns in sport participation of pre-service physical education teachers in Hong Kong. The pre-service physical education teachers will have direct contact with children in the area of physical education and sports in one or two years' time. They will be the most important media in influencing the attitude and value of the children towards physical activities and sport. This study highlightes the conceptual links among Achievement Goals Theory (Maehr & Nicholls, 1980; Nicholls, 1984), Cognitive Evaluation Theory(Deci, 1975; Deci & Ryan, 1985) and Competence Motivation Theory (Harter, 1978) by examining the relationship between task/ego goal perspective and intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation. Eighty-one pre- service physical education teachers from the Hong Kong Institute of Education completed the Chinese version of Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ; Duda, 1989) and Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Pelletier et. al., 1995). The mean and standard deviations for the scores of the questionnaires were analysed to examine the motivational behavior of the subjects. Simple correlation analysis had been performed to determine the relationship between task/ego goal orientations and intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientations. Gender differences in goal perspectives and motivational orientations had been examined by using independent sample t-tests. The results were used to compare with another sample of 59 pre-service non-PE teachers in order to examine whether RE elective and non-PE elective teachers differ in their goal perspective and motivational orientations. The results demonstrated significant gender difference and elective difference in motivational orientations; with RE elective and male subjects significantly higher than non-PE elective and female subjects. However, the differences in goal perspectives were insignificant in all sample groups. As predicted, the relationship between task orientation and intrinsic motivation was significantly positive. However, this significantly positive relationship also existed between task orientation and extrinsic motivation. In contrast with previous studies, the simultaneous high score occurred in both the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and also the task and ego orientation for the pre-service P.E. teachers suggested that it would be possible that individuals having a high score in task orientation and intrinsic motivation, did not necessarily score low in ego orientation and extrinsic motivation. The highly motivated pre-service P.E. teachers were both task oriented and ego oriented towards sport participation and they also enjoy both intrinsic and extrinsic benefits. The study suggested that in examining the goal perspectives and motivational orientations for the pre-service P.E. teachers, a multidimensional approach has to be taken.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1996


Tsang, C. K., & Chan, C. M. R. (1996, November). Motivational pattern of pre-service P. E. teachers in sport participation. Paper presented at the Hong Kong Educational Research Association (HKERA) 13th Annual Conference: Restructuring Schools in Changing Societies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, China.


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