Motivation gap and achievement gap between public and private high schools in the Philippines

Allan B. I. BERNARDO, Fraide A. GANOTICE, Ronnel Bornasal KING

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)


As in many countries, public school students in the Philippines have lower levels of achievement compared to private school students. We study whether there is a motivation gap related to this achievement gap by assessing a range of motivational constructs (sense of self, facilitating conditions, and achievement goals) drawn from personal investment theory of motivation, and examining how these constructs predict various school outcomes. Filipino students (N = 1,694) enrolled in high school Chemistry from private and public high schools participated in the study. Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that public school students reported less support for schooling from their social groups, lower academic related self-concept, and lower achievement goals compared to private school students. Multiple regression analyses indicated that motivational variables explained a significant amount of variance in achievement and school engagement. Copyright © 2014 De La Salle University.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)657-667
JournalThe Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
Issue number4
Early online dateSep 2014
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015



Bernardo, A. B. I., Ganotice, F. A., & King, R. B. (2015). Motivation gap and achievement gap between public and private high schools in the Philippines. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(4), 657-667.


  • Achievement gap
  • Motivation
  • Public school
  • Private school
  • Achievement
  • School engagement
  • Philippines