Metabolic adjustments in the common carp during prolonged hypoxia

B. S. ZHOU, Shiu Sun Rudolf WU, D. J. RANDALL, P. K. S. LAM, Y. K. IP, S. F. CHEW

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Biochemical and respiratory changes in the common carp Cyprinus carpio were studied 6, 24, 96 and 168 h upon exposure to hypoxia (0-5 mgO₂ 1⁻¹). Modification of kinetic properties of phosphofructokinase (PFK-1), coupled with a decreased in PFK-1 activities, were evident in muscle. No changes in kinetics and activities could be observed in muscle pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A decrease in muscle citrate synthase (CS) and an increase in muscle cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) were found. The common carp was able to maintain a constant level of muscle glycogen, muscle ATP, and liver CS throughout the 168-h experimental period. Changes in activities of liver LDH and muscle CCO were observed only at 168 h, which indicates that common carp may switch to alternative metabolic pathway to deal with prolonged hypoxia. A severe decrease in liver glycogen was accompanied by increases in lactate levels in both the muscle and liver. Oxygen consumption rate was reduced under hypoxia, but resumed to normoxic levels within 2 h upon return to normoxic condition. Overall, these results indicate that carp adopt different strategies in an attempt to deal with short term and long term hypoxia in the natural environment. Copyright © 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1160-1171
JournalJournal of Fish Biology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2000


Zhou, B. S., Wu, R. S. S., Randall, D. J., Lam, P. K. S., Ip, Y. K., & Chew, S. F. (2000). Metabolic adjustments in the common carp during prolonged hypoxia. Journal of Fish Biology, 57(5), 1160-1171. doi: 10.1006/jfbi.2000.1382


  • Hypoxia
  • Cyprinus carpio
  • PFK-1 kinetics
  • Enzyme activities
  • Metabolic depression
  • Respiration


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