Measuring parents' perceptions of programming education in P-12 schools: Scale development and validation

Siu Cheung KONG, Robert Kwok-Yiu LI, Ron Chi-Wai KWOK

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


Schools around the globe increasingly realized the importance of technology and its application in the education system. To guarantee a successful educational innovation, schools seek out different parties for valuable opinions. Among them, parents are the important feedback providers, because their attitudes are influential on children's academic performance. Moreover, their involvement and support are considered the key factor that facilitates an effective implementation of programming education at schools. This study aimed at developing and validating an instrument measuring parents' perceptions of programming education among P-12 schools in Hong Kong. We propose that parents' perceptions of programming education is a multidimensional construct which constitutes (a) understanding, (b) support, and (c) expectation. In total, 524 questionnaires were collected from the parents who attended programming workshops and seminars. Exploratory factor analysis shows evidence for the three-dimensional construct. Confirmatory factor analysis reconfirms the measurement structure. Implications of the study are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1260-1280
JournalJournal of Educational Computing Research
Issue number5
Early online date19 Jun 2018
Publication statusPublished - 01 Sep 2019



Kong, S.-C., Li, R. K.-Y., & Kwok, R. C.-W. (2019). Measuring parents' perceptions of programming education in P-12 schools: Scale development and validation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(5), 1260-1280. doi: 10.1177/0735633118783182


  • P-12 education
  • Parents’ perceptions
  • Programming education
  • Scale validation
  • Scale development