Mathematics visualization for developing the concept of average

Research output: Contribution to conferencePapers


Computer-supported cognitive tools (CT) featuring visualization are promising e-resources that can support, guide and mediate the cognitive processes of learners in mathematics. This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a specially designed CT with manipulative visualization scaffolds for supporting the development of the concept of average using bar charts in classroom teaching. One teacher and 28 learners from a primary school participated. Both quantitative and qualitative data were confirmative with the use of the designed CT. An effective pedagogy achieving a significant improvement over the learners' learning outcomes was designed. Both the teacher and the learners showed preference for using the CT to teach or learn the target topic, and agreed visualization of the CT aided the teaching and learning of the way to estimate the average in bar charts with the concept of "transferring the excess to the inadequate while keeping the total frequency constant".
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016


Kong, S. C. (2016, November). Mathematics visualization for developing the concept of average. Paper presented at The 24th International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE 2016), Victor Menezes Convention Centre, IIT Bombay, Mumbai India.


  • Average
  • Bar charts
  • Computer-supported cognitive tool
  • Lesson analysis
  • Mathematics visualization
  • Primary mathematics


Dive into the research topics of 'Mathematics visualization for developing the concept of average'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.