Macro-structural predictors of Australian family day care quality

Vincent CHAR, Linda J. HARRISON, Hui LI

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review


Introduction: This study explores the predictive power of macro-structural characteristics on quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) outcomes of Family Day Care (FDC) services in Australia. 

Methods: The dataset consisted of 441 FDC National Quality Standard (NQS) ratings from all Australian states and territories, with overall ratings of Exceeding NQS, Meeting NQS, Working Towards NQS, or Significant Improvement Required. 

Results: Multinomial logistic regressions confirmed that management type, community socioeconomic status (SES), level of urbanization, and government jurisdiction explained 6.9 to 19.3% of the variation in QRIS outcomes. Results indicated that lower FDC NQS ratings were more likely for (1) private for-profit vs. not-for-profit; (2) low-SES vs. high-SES area; and (3) regional or remote area vs. metropolitan. State/territory jurisdiction also influenced NQS ratings. 

Discussion: These findings imply the need for policy attention to inequalities in FDC quality associated with systemic and organizational differences. Greater effort is needed to promote equality and equity in FDC services. Copyright © 2023 Char, Harrison and Li.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1114256
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


Char, V., Harrison, L. J., & Li, H. (2023). Macro-structural predictors of Australian family day care quality. Frontiers in Public Health, 11, Article 1114256.


  • Family day care
  • National quality framework
  • Systemic features
  • Early childcare
  • QRIS


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