Limited time perspective increases the value of calm

Da JIANG, Helene H. FUNG, Tamara SIMS, Jeanne L. TSAI, Fan ZHANG

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32 Citations (Scopus)


Previous findings indirectly suggest that the more people perceive their time in life as limited, the more they value calm. No study, however, has directly tested this hypothesis. To this end, using a combination of survey, experience sampling, and experimental methods, we examined the relationship between future time perspective and the affective states that people ideally want to feel (i.e., their "ideal affect"). In Study 1, the more people reported a limited time perspective, the more they wanted to feel calm and experience other low-arousal positive states. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to a limited time or an expanded time condition. Participants in the limited time condition reported valuing calm and other low arousal positive states more than those in the expanded time condition. We discuss the implications of these findings for broadening our understanding of the factors that shape how people ideally want to feel, and their consequences for decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Psychological Association.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-62
Issue number1
Early online dateJul 2015
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2016


Jiang, D., Fung, H. H., Sims, T., Tsai, J. L., & Zhang, F. (2016). Limited time perspective increases the value of calm. Emotion, 16(1), 52-62. doi: 10.1037/emo0000094


  • Ideal affect
  • Calm
  • Enthusiastic
  • Future time perspective
  • Decision making


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