Research in comparative and international education indicates that the quality of education, as measured by standardized tests, and the level of educational attainment have a significant impact on individual earning and national economic growth. However, the relationship between the quality of education and the level of educational attainment has not been addressed much in the literature. Hence, this study investigates the relationship between these two variables at the provincial level in Turkey to test the hypothesis that better education quality leads individuals and their families to seek more schooling. The results of this study, however, do not indicate a significant relationship between quality of education and the level of educational attainment after controlling for gross domestic product per capita and adult illiteracy rates of provinces. Copyright © 2012 SAGE Publications.