Research on intrinsic and extrinsic future goals has mostly focused on their impact on wellbeing with relatively lesser attention being focused on key learning outcomes. This study investigates how the pursuit of different future goals (i.e., society‐, family‐, career‐, wealth‐, and fame‐oriented goals) affects students’ self‐control, and whether self‐control mediates the relationship between future goals and distal learning outcomes (i.e., students’ affect to school and academic achievement 1 year later). The study adopted a longitudinal design involving 8,354 secondary students from 16 schools in Hong Kong. Students had to complete English and Mathematics achievement tests and answer questionnaires measuring the key variables. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated intrinsic future goals were more adaptive compared to extrinsic ones. In particular, results revealed the importance of society‐oriented goal on self‐control and distal learning outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
CitationZhoc, K. C. H., King, R. B., Law, W., & McInerney, D. M. (2019). Intrinsic and extrinsic future goals: Their differential effects on students’ self‐control and distal learning outcomes. Psychology in the Schools, 56(10), 1596-1613. doi: 10.1002/pits.22287
- Future goals
- Intrinsic and extrinsic goals
- Self‐determination theory (SDT)
- Academic achievement