Objective: The current exploratory study sought to examine dispositional optimism, or the general expectation for positive outcomes, around the world.
Method: Dispositional optimism and possible correlates were assessed across 61 countries (N = 15,185; mean age = 21.92; 77% female). Mean-level differences in optimism were computed along with their relationships with individual and country-level variables.
Results: Worldwide, mean optimism levels were above the midpoint of the scale. Perhaps surprisingly, country-level optimism was negatively related to gross domestic product per capita, population density, and democratic norms and positively related to income inequality and perceived corruption. However, country-level optimism was positively related to projected economic improvement. Individual-level optimism was positively related to individual well-being within every country, although this relationship was less strong in countries with challenging economic and social circumstances.
Conclusions: While individuals around the world are generally optimistic, societal characteristics appear to affect the degree to which their optimism is associated with psychological well-being, sometimes in seemingly anomalous ways. Copyright © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC.
|Journal||Journal of Personality|
|Early online date||Aug 2020|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2021|
CitationBaranski, E., Sweeny, K., Gardiner, G., Members of the International Situations Project, Funder, D. C., & Buchtel, E. E. (2021). International optimism: Correlates and consequences of dispositional optimism across 61 countries. Journal of Personality, 89(2), 288-304. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12582
- Dispositional optimism