Large-scale international studies of student achievement have yielded rich evidence of links between academic achievement and characteristics of students, families, schools and countries. Students' micro-level academic achievement occurs within micro-system environments of family and school, which in turn are influenced by the economic and cultural macrosystem of a country. At the student level, mathematics, reading, and science achievement is related to gender and motivation (interest in reading, extrinsic motivation, effort and perseverance, self-efficacy and self concept). Furthermore, characteristics of a student's family are also linked to academic achievement, including family structure (two parents, single parent, step-parent, living with no parents, resident grandparent, number of siblings), socio-economic status, and educational resources at home (e.g., number of books). Likewise, school variables such as schoolmate characteristics, school resources and teacher characteristics are linked to a student's achievement. Lastly, a country's economic and cultural characteristics are linked to a student's achievement. Copyright © 2013 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
|Title of host publication||Educational achievement: Teaching strategies, psychological factors and economic impact|
|Editors||Manju GOWDA, Anamika KHANDERIA|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|