Integration of minorities in Hong Kong: A conceptual framework

Research output: Contribution to conferencePapers


Background: Hong Kong, known as Asia’s world city in the East Asian region, generally portrays cultural diversity based on the mere existence of different population groups rather than the enactment of macro-level policy that proactively attends to the social integration of ethnic minorities. This sociopolitical context underlies cultural deficit views that occlude institutionally produced racial inequities confronting ethnic minorities who, according to some Liberal Studies textbooks, need to “seek active help” and be “open minded”.

Aims: This paper proposes a conceptual framework for the social inclusion of minorities in Hong Kong. It applies intersectionality theory to account for multiple sources of racial inequities to help overcome deficit views inherent in Hong Kong’s public and educational discourses.

Methodology: Intersectionality theory points to how cultural deficit views operate across the axes of ethnicity, gender, religion, class or language in Hong Kong. We apply this theory with reference to media reports, extant literature and data from our respective research projects.

Results: Cultural deficit views manifest differently in each minority group, in which racial inequities represent different interfaces of ethnicity, gender, religion, class or language. Pakistani students, for example, recount racialized experiences based on skin color and language proficiency, while Filipino students tend to face racial encounters with reference to their gender and class.

Conclusion: Intersectionality theory helps reveal the multifaceted nature of cultural deficit views in Hong Kong, offering nuanced insights into each minority group’s sources of racial inequities. These theoretical insights may endorse dialogues about multiculturally supportive policies and initiatives. Copyright © 2018 HKERA International Conference.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018


Arat, G., & Gube, J. (2018, December). Integration of minorities in Hong Kong: A conceptual framework. Paper presented at the Hong Kong Educational Research Association (HKERA) International Conference 2018: Equity, Access, and Diversity in Education: Theory, Practice, and Research, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.


Dive into the research topics of 'Integration of minorities in Hong Kong: A conceptual framework'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.