Integration mapping rules: Transforming relational database to semantic web ontology

Mohamed A. G. HAZBER, Ruixuan LI, Xiwu GU, Guandong XU

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Semantic integration became an attractive area of research in several disciplines, such as information integration, databases and ontologies. Huge amount of data is still stored in relational databases (RDBs) that can be used to build ontology, and the database cannot be used directly by the semantic web. Therefore, one of the main challenges of the semantic web is mapping relational databases to ontologies (RDF(S)-OWL). Moreover, the use of manual work in the mapping of web contents to ontologies is impractical because it contains billions of pages and the most of these contents are generated from relational databases. Hence, we propose a new approach, which enables semantic web applications to access relational databases and their contents by semantic methods. Domain ontologies can be used to formulate relational database schema and data in order to simplify the mapping (transformation) of the underlying data sources. Our method consists of two main phases: building ontology from an RDB schema and the generation of ontology instances from an RDB data automatically. In the first phase, we studied different cases of RDB schema to be mapped into ontology represented in RDF(S)-OWL, while in the second phase, the mapping rules are used to transform RDB data to ontological instances represented in RDF triples. Our approach is demonstrated with examples, validated by ontology validator and implemented using Apache Jena in Java Language and MYSQL. This approach is effective for building ontology and important for mining semantic information from huge web resources. Copyright © 2016 NSP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)881-901
JournalApplied Mathematics and Information Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2016


Hazber, M. A. G., Li, R., Gu, X., & Xu, G. (2016). Integration mapping rules: Transforming relational database to semantic web ontology. Applied Mathematics and Information Sciences, 10(3), 881-901.


  • Relational database
  • Semantic web ontology
  • Resource description framework (Schema) (RDF(S))
  • Web ontology language (OWL)
  • Mapping rule


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