In-service education ladder for teachers for the new millennium

King Chee PANG

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Teachers are the key to any successful educational development or reform and hence teachers' education is always a major aspect to consider in any changes towards quality education. Research and experience world-wide have shown that initial teacher education, no matter how long or how comprehensive, is not sufficient for meeting the career-long needs of teachers, especially for coping with the new challenges brought about by changes and reforms. To keep teachers up-to-date, to help them achieve professional development and meet new challenges for quality education, teacher education has now been widely accepted as a career-long, continuous process, consisting of three distinct stages as depicted by the "Triple-i model". Following the first stage of initial teacher education (first "i"), teachers should be supported throughout their career, both in the first one or two years on entry by "induction" support (second "i"), and continuously thereafter by various forms of "in-service education" (third "i"). To support the systematic planning and provision of induction and in-service education for teachers, a model for an "In-service Education Ladder" has been proposed by the author earlier, based on some earlier research of the author as well as a pilot study of the views of teacher educators at the Institute. This model conceptualized the professional education needs of serving teachers into four major categories: namely, (1) induction, (2) updating and retraining, (3) extension and (4) conversion. Following "induction" needs during the first one or two years of teaching, all teachers possess different ongoing "updating and retraining" and "extension" needs at different stages of their professional career. As they are promoted or as they take up new responsibilities, teachers will have additional "conversion" needs as well. This paper reports on the author's further work on the establishment of the "In-service Education Ladder" for the new millenium, including fine-tuning the ladder's components by a further pilot study on the perceived needs of teachers at different stages as well as by an analysis of the implications of the anticipated changes and challenges in the new millenium on the in-service education needs of teachers. Reference will be made to the current educational reform initiated by the Education Commission in Hong Kong as a case from the Asian-Pacific region, and its implications on the components of the ladder. Copyright © 2000 The Hong Kong Institute of Education.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of International Conference on Teacher Education 1999: Teaching effectiveness and teacher development in the new century
Place of PublicationHong Kong
PublisherHong Kong Institute of Education
ISBN (Print)9629490382
Publication statusPublished - 2000


professional career
educational reform
Hong Kong


Pang, K. C. (2000). In-service education ladder for teachers for the new millennium. In Proceedings of International Conference on Teacher Education 1999: Teaching effectiveness and teacher development in the new century [CD-ROM] (pp. 1-24). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Education.