Improving an old way to measure moderation effect in standardized units

Shu Fai CHEUNG, Sing-Hang CHEUNG, Esther Yuet Ying LAU, C. Harry HUI, Weng Ngai VONG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Moderation effects in multiple regression, tested usually by the inclusion of a product term, are frequently investigated in health psychology. However, several issues in presenting the moderation effects in standardized units and their associated confidence intervals are commonly observed. While an old method had been proposed to standardize variables in moderated regression before fitting a moderated regression model, this method was rarely used due to inconvenience and even when used, the confidence intervals derived were biased. Here, we attempt to solve these two problems by providing a tool to conveniently conduct standardization in moderated regression without the step of standardizing the variables beforehand and to accurately form the nonparametric bootstrapping confidence intervals for this standardized measure of moderation effects. Health psychology researchers are now equipped with a tool that can be used to report and interpret standardized moderation effects correctly. Copyright © 2022 American Psychological Association.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)502-505
JournalHealth Psychology
Issue number7
Early online dateApr 2022
Publication statusPublished - 2022


Cheung, S. F., Cheung, S.-H., Lau, E. Y. Y., Hui, C. H., & Vong, W. N. (2022). Improving an old way to measure moderation effect in standardized units. Health Psychology, 41(7), 502-505. doi: 10.1037/hea0001188


  • Moderation
  • Effect size
  • Standardized solution
  • Confidence interval


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