Implementation of Brain Breaks® in the classroom and effects on attitudes toward physical activity in a Macedonian school setting

Biljana POPESKA, Snezana JOVANOVA-MITKOVSKA, Ming-Kai CHIN, Christopher R. EDGINTON, Magdalena Mo Ching MOK, Serjoza GONTAREV

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8 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of Brain Break® activities on interest and motivation for physical activity among schoolchildren and the contribution of such activities on learning for health and holistic development. The study sample was comprised of 283 participants, primary school students from 3rd to 5th grades from two public schools in the Republic of Macedonia. Six experimental and six control groups were included in the study. Interventions in classroom settings—based Brain Break® video exercises were introduced in the experimental group during a period of three months. Students' attitudes toward physical activity were tested using a self-report survey instrument entitled "Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale (APAS)" before and after intervention. Applied factor analyses were completed and the results of these analysis support APAS validity and the successful use of this application in the measurement of the learning experience, self-awareness, self-efficacy, and self-confidence in developing physical fitness. Learning was enhanced by using video exercises. Information presented in this paper is meaningful for the promotion of better exercise habits and the holistic approach to better health by using personal motivation and motivation provided by others. The results from repeated ANCOVA suggest positive effects of the applied Brain Break® video exercises as an interventional program. The study confirms the effect of application of Brain Break® video exercises on children's attitudes for physical activity, motivation for PA, internalization of movement habits as personal good. Copyright © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1127
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - May 2018



Popeska, B., Jovanova-Mitkovska, S., Chin, M.-K., Edginton, C. R., Mok, M. M. C., & Gontarev, S. (2018). Implementation of Brain Breaks® in the classroom and effects on attitudes toward physical activity in a Macedonian school setting. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(6). Retrieved from


  • Video exercises
  • Primary school children
  • Physical activity
  • Attitudes
  • Brain Breaks®