Immigration, living arrangement and the poverty risk of older adults in Hong Kong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)


Using 2011 census data, this study investigated how living arrangement affects disparities in poverty between older adults (aged 65 and older) who migrated to Hong Kong from Mainland China and those who were born in Hong Kong. Our sample consisted of 29,987 immigrants and 9,398 natives, all of whom were ethnic Chinese and living in Hong Kong at the time of the census. We found higher poverty rates among older immigrants than among natives, a disparity that persisted even after adjusting for living arrangement, human capital characteristics, assimilation-related variables, household composition and demographic characteristics. We also found that living arrangement moderated the impact of immigrant status on the poverty risk among older adults, and that the impact was due mainly to the number of earners in the household. The implications of our results with respect to poverty among older adults and anti-poverty measures are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Author(s). International Journal of Social Welfare © 2015 International Journal of Social Welfare and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)247-258
JournalInternational Journal of Social Welfare
Issue number3
Early online dateSep 2015
Publication statusPublished - 2016


life situation
Hong Kong
social welfare
human capital


Chan, L.-S., & Chou, K.-L. (2016). Immigration, living arrangement and the poverty risk of older adults in Hong Kong. International Journal of Social Welfare, 25(3), 247-258.


  • Older immigrants
  • Poverty risk
  • Living arrangement
  • Hong Kong
  • Mainland China