Hypoxia is a potent endocrine disruptor that is posing serious problems to the fish reproductive systems. Our previous studies reported that hypoxia could cause a transgenerational impairment of ovarian development and interfere hatching success in F2 offspring of marine medaka fish (Oryzias melastigma) through epigenetic regulation. As part of the epigenetic regulation, we investigated the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in hypoxia-induced transgenerational reproductive impairments. In the present study, we used comparative small RNA sequencing to reveal that hypoxia caused miRNA dysregulation in ovaries of F0 hypoxia group and F2 transgenerational group. We found 4 common dysregulated miRNA in the F0 and F2 generations. Furthermore, integrated miRNA-mRNA analysis, followed by gene ontology enrichment analysis on the hypoxia-dysregulated miRNA-target genes further highlighted the importance of these dysregulated miRNAs in biological processes related to reproduction. More importantly, we identified 3 miRNA-mRNA pairs (novel miRNA-525-DIAPH2, novel miRNA-525-MYOCD, and novel miRNA-525-RAI14) that might play epigenetic roles in hypoxia-induced reproductive impairment. For the first time, our findings suggested the involvement of miRNA in hypoxia-induced reproductive impairments may be inherited via a transgenerational manner. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.