Rice and vegetables cultivated in naturally arsenic (As) endemic areas are the substantial source of As body loading for persons using safe drinking water. However, tracing As intake, particularly from rice and vegetables by biomarker analysis, has been poorly addressed. This field investigation was conducted to trace the As transfer pathway and measure health risk associated with consuming As enriched rice and vegetables. Purposively selected 100 farmers from five sub-districts of Chandpur, Bangladesh fulfilling specific requirements constituted the subjects of this study. A total of 100 Irrigation water, soils, rice, and vegetable samples were collected from those farmers’ who donated scalp hair. Socio-demographic and food consumption data were collected face to face through questionnaire administration. The mean As level in irrigation water, soils, rice, vegetables, and scalp hairs exceeded the acceptable limit, while As content was significant at 0.1%, 5%, 0.1%, 1%, and 0.1% probability levels, respectively, in all five locations. Arsenic in scalp hair is significantly (p ≤ 0.01) correlated with that in rice and vegetables. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for rice and vegetables is less than one and significant at a 1% probability level. The average daily intake (ADI) is higher than the RfD limit for As. Both grains and vegetables have an HQ (hazard quotient) > 1. Maximum incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) showed 2.8 per 100 people and 1.6 per 1000 people are at considerable and threshold risk, respectively. However, proteinaceous and nutritious food consumption might have kept the participants asymptomatic. The PCA analysis showed that the first principle component (PC1) explains 91.1% of the total variance dominated by As in irrigation water, grain, and vegetables. The dendrogram shows greater variations in similarity in rice and vegetables As, while the latter has been found to contribute more to human body loading compared to grain As. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Early online date||Jul 2022|
|Publication status||Published - Sept 2022|
CitationRokonuzzaman, M. D., Li, W. C., Wu, C., & Ye, Z. H. (2022). Human health impact due to arsenic contaminated rice and vegetables consumption in naturally arsenic endemic regions. Environmental Pollution, 308. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119712
- Rice and vegetables
- Scalp hair
- Health risk assessment
- PG student publication