How culture affects female inequality across countries: An empirical study

Hoi Yan CHEUNG, Alex W. H. CHAN

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms of female enrollment rates (at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels) in 53 different regions. Moreover, this study examines whether the enrollment rates can affect the career and income of women in the regions studied. Finally, this study also examines the relationships between Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the career opportunities and income of women. Data from the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report 2005 was used in this study, and the results show that individualism, power distance, and masculinity could significantly and strongly predict the educational enrollment rates, career, and income of women across the 53 regions. Copyright © 2007 Nuffic.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-179
JournalJournal of Studies in International Education
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2007


Cheung, H. Y., & Chan, A. W. H. (2007). How culture affects female inequality across countries: An empirical study. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(2), 157-179.


  • Hofstede's cultural dimensions
  • Female inequality
  • Cross countries
  • Education
  • Employment


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