Residential solid fuels are widely consumed in rural China, contributing to severe household air pollution for many products of incomplete combustion, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives. In this study, concentrations of nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives (nPAHs and oPAHs) for household and personal air were measured and analyzed for influencing factors like smoking and cooking energy type. Concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in kitchens were higher than those in living rooms and in outdoor air. Exposure levels measured by personal samplers were lower than levels in indoor air, but higher than outdoor air levels. With increasing molecular weight, individual compounds tended to be more commonly partitioned to particulate matter (PM); moreover, higher molecular weight nPAHs and oPAHs were preferentially found in finer particles, suggesting a potential for increased health risks. Smoking behavior raised the concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in personal air significantly. People who cooked food also had higher personal exposures. Cooking and smoking have a significant interaction effect on personal exposure. Concentrations in kitchens and personal exposure to nPAHs and oPAHs for households using wood and peat were significantly higher than for those using electricity and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
CitationChen, Y., Du, W., Shen, G., Zhuo, S., Zhu, X., Shen, H., et al. (2017). Household air pollution and personal exposure to nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatics (PAHs) in rural households: Influence of household cooking energies. Indoor Air, 27(1), 169-178.
- Nitrated as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
- Oxygenated as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
- Household air
- Personal exposure
- Household energies
- Smoking behavior