Household air pollution and personal exposure risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among rural residents in Shanxi, China

Y. CHEN, G. SHEN, Y. HUANG, Y. ZHANG, Y. HAN, R. WANG, H. SHEN, S. SU, N. LIN, D. ZHU, L. PEI, X. ZHENG, J. WU, X. WANG, W. LIU, Ming Hung WONG, Shu TAO

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Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of pollutants of widespread concerns. Gaseous and size-segregated particulate-phase PAHs were collected in indoor and outdoor air in rural households. Personal exposure was measured and compared to the ingestion exposure. The average concentrations of 28 parent PAHs and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were 9000 ± 8390 and 131 ± 236 ng/m³ for kitchen, 2590 ± 2270 and 43 ± 95 ng/ m³ for living room, and 2800 ± 3890 and 1.6 ± 0.7 ng/ m³ for outdoor air, respectively. The mass percent of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds with 5–6 rings contributed 1.3% to total 28 parent PAHs. Relatively higher fractions of HMW PAHs were found in indoor air compared to outdoor air. Majorities of particle-bound PAHs were found in the finest PM₀.₂₅, and the highest levels of fine PM₀.₂₅₋bound PAHs were in the kitchen using peat and wood as energy sources. The 24-h personal PAH exposure concentration was 2100 ± 1300 ng/ m³. Considering energies, exposures to those using wood were the highest. The PAH inhalation exposure comprised up to about 30% in total PAH exposure through food ingestion and inhalation, and the population attributable fraction (PAF) for lung cancer in the region was 0.85%. The risks for inhaled and ingested intakes of PAHs were 1.0 × 10⁻⁵and 1.1 × 10⁻⁵, respectively. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-258
JournalIndoor Air
Volume26
Issue number2
Early online dateMar 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2016

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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Air Pollution
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Air pollution
China
Air
Kitchens
Nuclear Family
Wood
Eating
Molecular Weight
Molecular weight
Inhalation Exposure
Peat
Benzo(a)pyrene
Pyrene
Inhalation
Lung Neoplasms
Soil
Food

Citation

Chen, Y., Shen, G., Huang, Y., Zhang, Y., Han, Y., Wang, R., Et al. (2016). Household air pollution and personal exposure risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among rural residents in Shanxi, China. Indoor Air, 26(2), 246-258.

Keywords

  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Household air pollution
  • Cooking fuel
  • Inhaled exposure
  • Dietary exposure
  • Cancer risks