Dozens of social protests have occurred in Hong Kong with various political goals since June 2019. University students were actively involved in the protests and they upheld different attitudes about the use of aggression toward police during the protests. In this study, drawing upon the risk-resilience model, we aimed to understand the individual differences in normative beliefs about aggression toward police (NBAGG→P) and its association with multiple ecological risks (i.e., distrust in institutions, exposure to community violence, poor family monitoring, poor school discipline and affiliation with delinquent peers). Moreover, we examined the protective and moderating role of future orientation. A total of 1,025 Hong Kong university students participated in a cross-sectional survey. Results showed that about 80% students (valid N=1,019) had joined the protests and about 45% of them (valid N=802) had shown aggression during the protests. Students reported medium levels of NBAGG→P and these aggressive beliefs were related to more participation in protests and more use of aggression during the protests. Except for poor family monitoring, other ecological risks and a positive orientation were related to higher and lower levels of NBAGG→P, respectively, net the effect of demographic variables and general normative beliefs about aggression. Moreover, future orientation moderated the link between distrust in institutions and NBAGG→P. Ironically, this relation was stronger for students with a more positive future orientation compared to those with a less positive future orientation. These findings provide insights for reducing young people’s aggressive attitude and promoting positive civic engagement. Copyright © 2021 Asian Association of Social Psychology.
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2021|
|Event||The 14th Biennial Conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology - Seoul, Korea, Republic of|
Duration: 29 Jul 2021 → 31 Jul 2021
|Conference||The 14th Biennial Conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology|
|Abbreviated title||AASP 2021|
|Country/Territory||Korea, Republic of|
|Period||29/07/21 → 31/07/21|