We examined the association between normative beliefs about aggression toward police (NBAGG→P) and participation in social protests during 2019–2020 and use of aggression among 1,025 Hong Kong university students. We also investigated the role of ecological risks (i.e., distrust in institutions, exposure to community violence, poor family monitoring, poor university discipline and affiliation with delinquent peers) and future orientation in NBAGG→P. The results showed that NBAGG→P was related to more participation in social protests and use of aggression. Ecological risks (except for poor family monitoring) and a positive future orientation were related to more and less NBAGG→P, respectively. Moreover, the “distrust in institutions and NBAGG→P” link was stronger for students with more, rather than less, positive future orientation. Copyright © 2021 The Author(s).
CitationLi, J.-B., & Finkenauer, C. (2021). Hong Kong university students’ normative beliefs about aggression toward police during social protests 2019-2020: The role of ecological risks and future orientation. Crime and Delinquency. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/00111287211014145
- Aggressive attitudes
- Future orientation
- Civic engagement
- Risk-resilience model
- Social-ecological model of resilience